ssdeep Project

ssdeep - Fuzzy hashing program


ssdeep is a program for computing context triggered piecewise hashes (CTPH). Also called fuzzy hashes, CTPH can match inputs that have homologies. Such inputs have sequences of identical bytes in the same order, although bytes in between these sequences may be different in both content and length.

A complete explanation of CTPH can be found in Identifying almost identical files using context triggered piecewise hashing from the journal Digital Investigation. There is a free version of this paper available through the Digital Forensic Research Workshop conference, free version of Identifying almost identical files using context triggered piecewise hashing.

It also provides a library (libfuzzy) to generate/compare fuzzy hashes.

ssdeep hashes are now widely used for simple identification purposes. (e.g. Basic Properties section in VirusTotal) Although “better fuzzy hashes” are available, ssdeep is still one of the primary choices because of its speed (now about twice as fast as TLSH) and being a de facto standard.



ssdeep is available at GitHub. The latest version is 2.14.1 (released on 2017-11-07). You can take a look at the complete changelog, but here are the changes in the latest version:


License / Copying

This program and its library are licensed under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.


Let us introduce some of the people who gave major contributions to the program.

Jesse Kornblum

ssdeep was originally written by Jesse Kornblum. He created this useful program based on original spamsum code by Dr. Andrew Trigdell and kept this program improved for years.

Helmut Grohne

He mainly contributed to ssdeep version 2.10 and 2.11. Thanks to his re-written fuzzy hashing engine, libfuzzy can now be used from multi-threaded programs and is capable to process streams without seek capabilities.

Tsukasa OI

He is the current project maintainer and mainly contributed to ssdeep version 2.13 and 2.14. He improved stability, portability and speed of the fuzzy hashing engine and also fixed major bugs.


If you have any questions or issues, please create an issue on GitHub.

You may also contact the current project maintainer, Tsukasa OI <floss_ssdeep *at irq .dot a4lg .dot com.>.